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A England aims to fulfill every different style you have to offer. Helping them be more durable and last longer. The English Lowlands are in the central and southern regions of the country, consisting of green rolling hills, including the Cotswold Hills , Chiltern Hills , North and South Downs ; where they meet the sea they form white rock exposures such as the cliffs of Dover.
The coldest months are January and February, the latter particularly on the English coast , while July is normally the warmest month.
Months with mild to warm weather are May, June, September and October. Important influences on the climate of England are its proximity to the Atlantic Ocean , its northern latitude and the warming of the sea by the Gulf Stream.
The fauna of England is similar to that of other areas in the British Isles with a wide range of vertebrate and invertebrate life in a diverse range of habitats.
National nature reserves in England are designated by Natural England as key places for wildlife and natural features in England.
They were established to protect the most significant areas of habitat and of geological formations. NNRs are managed on behalf of the nation, many by Natural England themselves, but also by non-governmental organisations, including the members of The Wildlife Trusts partnership, the National Trust , and the Royal Society for the Protection of Birds.
There are NNRs in England covering square kilometres square miles. Often they contain rare species or nationally important species of plants and animals.
England has a temperate oceanic climate in most areas, lacking extremes of cold or heat, but does have a few small areas of subarctic and warmer areas in the South West.
Towards the North of England the climate becomes colder and most of England's mountains and high hills are located here and have a major impact on the climate and thus the local fauna of the areas.
Deciduous woodlands are common across all of England and provide a great habitat for much of England's wildlife, but these give way in northern and upland areas of England to coniferous forests mainly plantations which also benefit certain forms of wildlife.
The fauna of England has to cope with varying temperatures and conditions, although not extreme they do pose potential challenges and adaptational measures.
English fauna has however had to cope with industrialisation, human population densities amongst the highest in Europe and intensive farming , but as England is a developed nation, wildlife and the countryside have entered the English mindset more and the country is very conscientious about preserving its wildlife, environment and countryside.
Grey squirrels introduced from eastern America have forced the decline of the native red squirrel due to competition. Red squirrels are now confined to upland and coniferous-forested areas of England, mainly in the north, south west and Isle of Wight.
England's climate is very suitable for lagomorphs and the country has rabbits and brown hares which were introduced in Roman times. The Greater London Built-up Area is by far the largest urban area in England  and one of the busiest cities in the world.
It is considered a global city and has a population larger than other countries in the United Kingdom besides England itself.
While many cities in England are quite large, such as Birmingham , Sheffield , Manchester, Liverpool , Leeds , Newcastle , Bradford , Nottingham , population size is not a prerequisite for city status.
England is a leader in the chemical  and pharmaceutical sectors and in key technical industries, particularly aerospace , the arms industry , and the manufacturing side of the software industry.
Originally established as private banker to the government of England, since it has been a state-owned institution.
The government has devolved responsibility to the bank's Monetary Policy Committee for managing the monetary policy of the country and setting interest rates.
England is highly industrialised, but since the s there has been a decline in traditional heavy and manufacturing industries, and an increasing emphasis on a more service industry oriented economy.
The export part of the economy is dominated by pharmaceuticals , cars although many English marques are now foreign-owned, such as Land Rover , Lotus , Jaguar and Bentley , crude oil and petroleum from the English parts of North Sea oil along with Wytch Farm , aircraft engines and alcoholic beverages.
It is also a principal subcontractor on the F35 Joint Strike Fighter — the world's largest single defence project — for which it designs and manufactures a range of components including the aft fuselage, vertical and horizontal tail and wing tips and fuel system.
It also manufactures the Hawk , the world's most successful jet training aircraft. Rolls-Royce PLC is the world's second-largest aero-engine manufacturer.
Its engines power more than 30 types of commercial aircraft, and it has more 30, engines currently in service across both the civil and defence sectors.
With a workforce of over 12, people, Derby has the largest concentration of Rolls-Royce employees in the UK. Rolls-Royce also produces low-emission power systems for ships; makes critical equipment and safety systems for the nuclear industry and powers offshore platforms and major pipelines for the oil and gas industry.
The company builds the buses — the underlying structure onto which the payload and propulsion systems are built — for most of the European Space Agency 's spacecraft, as well as commercial satellites.
The world leader in compact satellite systems, Surrey Satellite Technology , is also part of Astrium. England is one of the world's leading fishing nations.
Its fleets bring home fish of every kind, ranging from sole to herring. Some experts claim that the earliest concept of a metric system was invented by John Wilkins , the first secretary of the Royal Society , in As the birthplace of the Industrial Revolution , England was home to many significant inventors during the late 18th and early 19th centuries.
Famous English engineers include Isambard Kingdom Brunel , best known for the creation of the Great Western Railway , a series of famous steamships , and numerous important bridges, hence revolutionising public transport and modern-day engineering.
With his role in the marketing and manufacturing of the steam engine, and invention of modern coinage, Matthew Boulton business partner of James Watt is regarded as one of the most influential entrepreneurs in history.
Inventions and discoveries of the English include: the jet engine , the first industrial spinning machine , the first computer and the first modern computer , the World Wide Web along with HTML , the first successful human blood transfusion , the motorised vacuum cleaner ,  the lawn mower , the seat belt , the hovercraft , the electric motor , steam engines , and theories such as the Darwinian theory of evolution and atomic theory.
Newton developed the ideas of universal gravitation , Newtonian mechanics , and calculus , and Robert Hooke his eponymously named law of elasticity.
Other inventions include the iron plate railway, the thermosiphon , tarmac , the rubber band , the mousetrap , "cat's eye" road marker , joint development of the light bulb , steam locomotives , the modern seed drill and many modern techniques and technologies used in precision engineering.
The Department for Transport is the government body responsible for overseeing transport in England. England has a dense and modern transportation infrastructure.
There are many motorways in England , and many other trunk roads, such as the A1 Great North Road , which runs through eastern England from London to Newcastle  much of this section is motorway and onward to the Scottish border.
The red double-decker buses in London have become a symbol of England. National Cycle Route offers cycling routes nationally. Rail transport in England is the oldest in the world: passenger railways originated in England in There are plans to reopen lines such as the Varsity Line between Oxford and Cambridge.
These lines are mostly standard gauge single , double or quadruple track though there are also a few narrow gauge lines.
There is rail transport access to France and Belgium through an undersea rail link, the Channel Tunnel , which was completed in England has extensive domestic and international aviation links.
The largest airport is Heathrow , which is the world's busiest airport measured by number of international passengers. By sea there is ferry transport, both local and international, including from Liverpool to Ireland and the Isle of Man, and Hull to the Netherlands and Belgium.
The River Thames is the major waterway in England, with imports and exports focused at the Port of Tilbury in the Thames Estuary , one of the United Kingdom's three major ports.
Energy use in the United Kingdom stood at 2, TWh Successive UK governments have outlined numerous commitments to reduce carbon dioxide emissions.
Notably, the UK is one of the best sites in Europe for wind energy , and wind power production is its fastest growing supply.
Government commitments to reduce emissions are occurring against a backdrop of economic crisis across Europe. UK government energy policy aims to play a key role in limiting greenhouse gas emissions , whilst meeting energy demand.
Shifting availabilities of resources and development of technologies also change the country's energy mix through changes in costs.
In , the United Kingdom was ranked 6th in the World on the Environmental Performance Index ,  which measures how well a country carries through environmental policy.
English Heritage is a governmental body with a broad remit of managing the historic sites, artefacts and environments of England. It is currently sponsored by the Department for Culture, Media and Sport.
The northernmost point of the Roman Empire, Hadrian's Wall , is the largest Roman artefact anywhere: it runs for a total of 73 miles in northern England.
London is one of the world's most visited cities, regularly taking the top five most visited cities in Europe.
It is largely considered a global centre of the arts and culture. Entry to most state-supported museums and galleries is free unlike in other countries.
National Health England NHS England is the publicly funded healthcare system responsible for providing the majority of healthcare in the country.
It was based on the findings of the Beveridge Report , prepared by economist and social reformer William Beveridge. When purchasing drugs, the NHS has significant market power that, based on its own assessment of the fair value of the drugs, influences the global price, typically keeping prices lower.
The average life expectancy of people in England is The English people are a British people. In , when the Domesday Book was compiled, England had a population of two million.
England contains one indigenous national minority, the Cornish people , recognised by the UK government under the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities in By the 15th century, English was back in fashion among all classes, though much changed; the Middle English form showed many signs of French influence, both in vocabulary and spelling.
During the English Renaissance , many words were coined from Latin and Greek origins. Thanks in large part to the British Empire , the English language is the world's unofficial lingua franca.
English language learning and teaching is an important economic activity , and includes language schooling , tourism spending, and publishing.
There is no legislation mandating an official language for England,  but English is the only language used for official business.
Despite the country's relatively small size, there are many distinct regional accents , and individuals with particularly strong accents may not be easily understood everywhere in the country.
As well as English, England has two other indigenous languages , Cornish and Welsh. Cornish died out as a community language in the 18th century but is being revived,   and is now protected under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages.
When the modern border between Wales and England was established by the Laws in Wales Acts and , many Welsh-speaking communities found themselves on the English side of the border.
Welsh was spoken in Archenfield in Herefordshire into the nineteenth century,  and by natives of parts of western Shropshire until the middle of the twentieth century if not later.
State schools teach students a second language or third language from the ages of seven, usually French, German, Spanish, Latin, Greek.
However, following the census data released by the Office for National Statistics , figures now show that Polish is the main language spoken in England after English.
In the census, The church regards itself as both Catholic and Protestant. It forms part of the Anglican Communion with the Archbishop of Canterbury acting as its symbolic worldwide head.
Since its reintroduction after the Catholic Emancipation , the Church has organised ecclesiastically on an England and Wales basis where there are 4.
A form of Protestantism known as Methodism is the third largest Christian practice and grew out of Anglicanism through John Wesley.
The patron saint of England is Saint George ; his symbolic cross is included in the flag of England, as well as in the Union Flag as part of a combination.
There are non-Christian religions practised. Jews have a history of a small minority on the island since Especially since the s, religions from the former British colonies have grown in numbers, due to immigration.
A small minority of the population practise ancient Pagan religions. Neopaganism in the United Kingdom is primarily represented by Wicca and Witchcraft religions , Druidry , and Heathenry.
According to the UK Census , there are roughly 53, people who identify as Pagan in England, [nb 5] and 3, in Wales , [nb 5] including 11, Wiccans in England and in Wales.
These figures are slightly lower than the combined figures for England and Wales as Wales has a higher level of irreligion than England. The Department for Education is the government department responsible for issues affecting people in England up to the age of 19, including education.
Children who are between the ages of 3 and 5 attend nursery or an Early Years Foundation Stage reception unit within a primary school.
Children between the ages of 5 and 11 attend primary school, and secondary school is attended by those aged between 11 and Schools may choose to permit trousers for girls or religious dress.
Although most English secondary schools are comprehensive , there are selective intake grammar schools to which entrance is subject to passing the eleven-plus exam.
Around 7. After finishing compulsory education, students take GCSE examinations. Students may then opt to continue into further education for two years.
Further education colleges particularly sixth form colleges often form part of a secondary school site. A-level examinations are sat by a large number of further education students, and often form the basis of an application to university.
Some English students study an apprenticeship to learn skilled trades and pursue T-levels to progress towards skilled employment, further study or a higher apprenticeship.
Higher education students normally attend university from age 18 onwards, where they study for an academic degree. The Department for Business, Innovation and Skills is the government department responsible for higher education in England.
Students are then able to work towards a postgraduate degree, which usually takes one year, or towards a doctorate, which takes three or more years.
Many ancient standing stone monuments were erected during the prehistoric period; amongst the best known are Stonehenge , Devil's Arrows , Rudston Monolith and Castlerigg.
Perhaps the best-known example is Hadrian's Wall stretching right across northern England. Early Medieval architecture's secular buildings were simple constructions mainly using timber with thatch for roofing.
Ecclesiastical architecture ranged from a synthesis of Hiberno — Saxon monasticism ,   to Early Christian basilica and architecture characterised by pilaster-strips, blank arcading, baluster shafts and triangular headed openings.
After the Norman conquest in various Castles in England were created so law lords could uphold their authority and in the north to protect from invasion.
Throughout the Plantagenet era, an English Gothic architecture flourished, with prime examples including the medieval cathedrals such as Canterbury Cathedral , Westminster Abbey and York Minster.
Medieval architecture was completed with the 16th-century Tudor style ; the four-centred arch, now known as the Tudor arch , was a defining feature as were wattle and daub houses domestically.
In the aftermath of the Renaissance a form of architecture echoing classical antiquity synthesised with Christianity appeared, the English Baroque style of architect Christopher Wren being particularly championed.
Georgian architecture followed in a more refined style, evoking a simple Palladian form; the Royal Crescent at Bath is one of the best examples of this.
With the emergence of romanticism during Victorian period, a Gothic Revival was launched. In addition to this, around the same time the Industrial Revolution paved the way for buildings such as The Crystal Palace.
Since the s various modernist forms have appeared whose reception is often controversial, though traditionalist resistance movements continue with support in influential places.
Landscape gardening as developed by Capability Brown set an international trend for the English garden. Gardening, visiting gardens, and a love for gardens are regarded as typically English pursuits.
The English garden presented an idealized view of nature. At large country houses, the English garden usually included lakes, sweeps of gently rolling lawns set against groves of trees, and recreations of classical temples, Gothic ruins , bridges, and other picturesque architecture, designed to recreate an idyllic pastoral landscape.
By the end of the 18th century the English garden was being imitated by the French landscape garden , and as far away as St.
Petersburg, Russia, in Pavlovsk , the gardens of the future Emperor Paul. It also had a major influence on the form of the public parks and gardens which appeared around the world in the 19th century.
Today, some large-scale English gardens and English landscape gardens are popular visitor cultural attractions managed by both English Heritage and the National Trust.
The Chelsea Flower Show is held every year and is said to be the largest gardening show in the world. English folklore developed over many centuries.
Some of the characters and stories are present across England, but most belong to specific regions.
Common folkloric beings include pixies , giants , elves , bogeymen , trolls , goblins and dwarves. While many legends and folk-customs are thought to be ancient, such as the tales featuring Offa of Angel and Wayland the Smith ,  others date from after the Norman invasion.
The legends featuring Robin Hood and his Merry Men of Sherwood , and their battles with the Sheriff of Nottingham , are among the best-known of these.
During the High Middle Ages tales originating from Brythonic traditions entered English folklore and developed into the Arthurian myth.
Many of the tales and pseudo-histories make up part of the wider Matter of Britain , a collection of shared British folklore.
Some folk figures are based on semi or actual historical people whose story has been passed down centuries; Lady Godiva for instance was said to have ridden naked on horseback through Coventry , Hereward the Wake was a heroic English figure resisting the Norman invasion, Herne the Hunter is an equestrian ghost associated with Windsor Forest and Great Park and Mother Shipton is the archetypal witch.
The chivalrous bandit, such as Dick Turpin , is a recurring character, while Blackbeard is the archetypal pirate.
There are various national and regional folk activities, participated in to this day, such as Morris dancing , Maypole dancing , Rapper sword in the North East, Long Sword dance in Yorkshire, Mummers Plays , bottle-kicking in Leicestershire, and cheese-rolling at Cooper's Hill.
Since the early modern period the food of England has historically been characterised by its simplicity of approach and a reliance on the high quality of natural produce.
The cuisine of England has, however, recently undergone a revival, which has been recognised by food critics with some good ratings in Restaurant ' s best restaurant in the world charts.
Traditional examples of English food include the Sunday roast , featuring a roasted joint usually beef, lamb , chicken or pork served with assorted vegetables, Yorkshire pudding and gravy.
Sausages are commonly eaten, either as bangers and mash or toad in the hole. Lancashire hotpot is a well-known stew originating in the northwest.
Many Anglo-Indian hybrid dishes, curries , have been created, such as chicken tikka masala and balti. Traditional English dessert dishes include apple pie or other fruit pies; spotted dick — all generally served with custard ; and, more recently, sticky toffee pudding.
Sweet pastries include scones either plain or containing dried fruit served with jam or cream, dried fruit loaves, Eccles cakes and mince pies as well as a wide range of sweet or spiced biscuits.
Common non-alcoholic drinks include tea, the popularity of which was increased by Catherine of Braganza ,  and coffee; frequently consumed alcoholic drinks include wine, ciders and English beers , such as bitter , mild , stout and brown ale.
The earliest known examples are the prehistoric rock and cave art pieces, most prominent in North Yorkshire , Northumberland and Cumbria , but also feature further south, for example at Creswell Crags.
There are numerous surviving artefacts, such as those at Lullingstone and Aldborough. The Tudor era saw prominent artists as part of their court, portrait painting which would remain an enduring part of English art, was boosted by German Hans Holbein , natives such as Nicholas Hilliard built on this.
In the 19th century, Constable and Turner were major landscape artists. Early authors such as Bede and Alcuin wrote in Latin. Marvell was the best-known poet of the Commonwealth ,  while John Milton authored Paradise Lost during the Restoration.
William Shakespeare. More radical elements were later countered by Edmund Burke who is regarded as the founder of conservatism.
In response to the Industrial Revolution , agrarian writers sought a way between liberty and tradition; William Cobbett , G. Chesterton and Hilaire Belloc were main exponents, while the founder of guild socialism , Arthur Penty , and cooperative movement advocate G.
Cole are somewhat related. Wells and Lewis Carroll. Lawrence , Virginia Woolf , C. Tolkien , and J. The traditional folk music of England is centuries old and has contributed to several genres prominently; mostly sea shanties , jigs , hornpipes and dance music.
It has its own distinct variations and regional peculiarities. German-born George Frideric Handel spent most of his composing life in London and became a national icon in Britain, creating some of the most well-known works of classical music, especially his English oratorios, The Messiah , Solomon , Water Music , and Music for the Royal Fireworks.
In the field of popular music , many English bands and solo artists have been cited as the most influential and best-selling musicians of all time.
Large outdoor music festivals in the summer and autumn are popular, such as Glastonbury , V Festival , and the Reading and Leeds Festivals. It is the largest open-air Asian festival in Europe.
After the Notting Hill Carnival , it is the second-largest street festival in the United Kingdom attracting over 80, visitors from across the country.
Hitchcock and Lean are among the most critically acclaimed filmmakers. Major film studios in England include Pinewood , Elstree and Shepperton.
Some of the most commercially successful films of all time have been produced in England, including two of the highest-grossing film franchises Harry Potter and James Bond.
There are many museums in England, but perhaps the most notable is London's British Museum. Its collection of more than seven million objects  is one of the largest and most comprehensive in the world,  sourced from every continent, illustrating and documenting the story of human culture from its beginning to the present.
England has a strong sporting heritage, and during the 19th century codified many sports that are now played around the world.
Sports originating in England include association football ,  cricket , rugby union , rugby league , tennis , boxing , badminton, squash ,  rounders ,  hockey , snooker , billiards , darts , table tennis, bowls , netball , thoroughbred horseracing, greyhound racing and fox hunting.
It has helped the development of golf , sailing and Formula One. Football is the most popular of these sports.
The England national football team , whose home venue is Wembley Stadium , played Scotland in the first ever international football match in In the modern day, the Premier League is the world's most-watched football league,  most lucrative,  and amongst the elite.
As is the case throughout the UK, football in England is notable for the rivalries between clubs and the passion of the supporters, which includes a tradition of football chants.
Cricket is generally thought to have been developed in the early medieval period among the farming and metalworking communities of the Weald.
One of the game's top rivalries is The Ashes series between England and Australia , contested since The climax of the Ashes was viewed by 7.
William Penny Brookes was prominent in organising the format for the modern Olympic Games. England competes in the Commonwealth Games , held every four years.
Sport England is the governing body responsible for distributing funds and providing strategic guidance for sporting activity in England.
Rugby union originated in Rugby School , Warwickshire in the early 19th century. England was one of the host nations of the competition in the Rugby World Cup and also hosted the Rugby World Cup.
Rugby league was born in Huddersfield in Since , the England national rugby league team has been a full test nation in lieu of the Great Britain national rugby league team , which won three World Cups but is now retired.
Rugby League is most popular among towns in the northern English counties of Lancashire , Yorkshire and Cumbria. Some of the most successful clubs include Wigan Warriors , Hull F.
Golf has been prominent in England; due in part to its cultural and geographical ties to Scotland, the home of Golf. The world's oldest golf tournament, and golf's first major is The Open Championship , played both in England and Scotland.
The biennial golf competition, the Ryder Cup , is named after English businessman Samuel Ryder who sponsored the event and donated the trophy.
Tennis was created in Birmingham in the late 19th century, and the Wimbledon Championships is the oldest tennis tournament in the world, and widely considered the most prestigious.
Fred Perry was the last Englishman to win Wimbledon in He was the first player to win all four Grand Slam singles titles  and helped lead the Great Britain team to four Davis Cup wins.
In boxing , under the Marquess of Queensberry Rules , England has produced many world champions across the weight divisions internationally recognised by the governing bodies.
Originating in 17th and 18th-century England, the thoroughbred is a horse breed best known for its use in horse racing.
It is the most watched horse race in the UK, attracting casual observers, and three-time winner Red Rum is the most successful racehorse in the event's history.
England also has a rich heritage in Grand Prix motorcycle racing , the premier championship of motorcycle road racing , and produced several World Champions across all the various class of motorcycle: Mike Hailwood , John Surtees , Phil Read , Geoff Duke , and Barry Sheene.
Darts is a widely popular sport in England; a professional competitive sport, darts is a traditional pub game.
Phil Taylor is widely regarded as the best darts player of all time, having won professional tournaments, and a record 16 World Championships.
Another popular sport commonly associated with pub games is Snooker , and England has produced several world champions, including Steve Davis and Ronnie O'Sullivan.
The English are keen sailors and enjoy competitive sailing ; founding and winning some of the world's most famous and respected international competitive tournaments across the various race formats, including the match race , a regatta, and the America's Cup.
The St George's Cross has been the national flag of England since the 13th century. Originally the flag was used by the maritime Republic of Genoa. The English monarch paid a tribute to the Doge of Genoa from onwards so that English ships could fly the flag as a means of protection when entering the Mediterranean.
A red cross was a symbol for many Crusaders in the 12th and 13th centuries. It became associated with Saint George , along with countries and cities, which claimed him as their patron saint and used his cross as a banner.
There are numerous other symbols and symbolic artefacts, both official and unofficial, including the Tudor rose , the nation's floral emblem , and the Three Lions featured on the Royal Arms of England.
The Tudor rose was adopted as a national emblem of England around the time of the Wars of the Roses as a symbol of peace. It is also known as the Rose of England.
The Royal Oak symbol and Oak Apple Day commemorate the escape of King Charles II from the grasp of the parliamentarians after his father's execution: he hid in an oak tree to avoid detection before safely reaching exile.
The Royal Arms of England, a national coat of arms featuring three lions, originated with its adoption by Richard the Lionheart in It is blazoned as gules, three lions passant guardant or and it provides one of the most prominent symbols of England; it is similar to the traditional arms of Normandy.
England does not have an official designated national anthem, as the United Kingdom as a whole has God Save the Queen. A lot of people did not like James because he was Roman Catholic.
William of Orange was invited to invade England. Many people welcomed William because he was a Protestant. James left the country without a fight and Parliament asked William and Mary to become King and Queen together.
Queen Mary's sister Anne became the next queen. While she was queen, England and Scotland were officially joined as one country.
This was called the Acts of Union It also merged their separate parliaments. The result was the separation of the Republic of Ireland.
This is not the whole island of Ireland. England is the only country of UK not to have its own government, Parliament or Assembly, but is governed by Parliament of the United Kingdom.
Seats in Parliament are decide by the number of electors in the various parts of the UK. England has been central to many aspects of the modern world.
Global exploration and trade , the British Empire , modern science , modern agriculture , railways , the industrial revolution , the development of modern representative democracy In all these developments England was deeply involved.
In some of them, such as the industrial revolution, England was the place that modern developments first occurred. The English language is a West Germanic language spoken in many countries around the world.
With around million native speakers, it is the second most spoken language in the world , as a native language. As many as a billion people speak it as a second language.
English is an influence on, and has been influenced by many different languages. Some people in England speak other languages, such as Welsh.
All of Great Britain has an oceanic climate. The prevailing wind for most of the year is from the Atlantic , to the west of England.